By Janet Gracyk (June 4, 2020)
Each year, the National Park Service Heritage Documentation Program sponsors a competition to document a significant landscape for inclusion in the Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS). The theme for 2020 is Vanishing or Lost Landscapes. CGLHS encourages everyone to participate. The deadline is July 31st.
Remnant of the James Flood Estate, Atherton. CA. HABS photo courtesy of the Library of Congress.
That vanishing or lost landscape may never be documented without your efforts! For those new to researching a landscape, this is a good way to start. The closure of libraries due to the COVID 19 pandemic poses a challenge, so you may have to rely on online resources and books in your personal library.
Following are four simple steps involved in documenting a lost landscape.
The Historic American Landscapes Survey uses both a short-format report, supported with some research and a few digital photos, and a much more involved format with detailed drawings and in-depth research. The short-format HALS report used for this competition is the easiest and most accessible form of recordation. The program also provides flexibility, and a short-format report may be expanded at a later date.
If you plan to submit a report, please contact me, Janet Gracyk, at firstname.lastname@example.org to avoid duplicating efforts. I am also happy to provide additional guidance.
Visit the following pages for more information and to download a copy of the template.
NPS Information: https://www.nps.gov/hdp/competitions/HALS_Challenge.html
ASLA information: https://www.asla.org/ContentDetail.aspx?id=37491
By Janet Gracyk (April 15, 2020)
Changes proposed for the California State Capitol property in Sacramento include demolition of the late Moderne style Annex building. The project is advancing rapidly but there is still time to question aspects of this project. Documents may be viewed at: https://annex.assembly.ca.gov/ .
Per the EIR, the project involves three primary components, (1) demolition and reconstruction of the existing Annex, (2) construction of a new underground visitor/welcome center on the west side of the Historic Capitol, and (3) construction of a new underground parking garage south of the Historic Capitol. See map below for the affected areas.
The mid-century Annex Building (built 1949-1951) would be removed entirely, with some decorative details removed for reuse. No one doubts that the Annex requires significant modifications, should it be retained, but retention of the building is not under consideration. The building is part of the National Register district. There was no consideration given to restoring, rehabilitating, or reconstructing the Annex.
There is surprisingly little analysis of the effects on the historic landscape. The EIR states: "It is estimated that approximately 20-30 trees would need to be removed to implement the project.” People with expertise following the project say that there are 106 historic trees in the footprint of the project, with no thorough plan for the trees. There are over 200 different kinds of trees in Capitol Park. This collection of trees, including many unusual ones, has been diminishing in variety for some years now. It is not entirely clear from the documents, how the Capitol’s “front porch” on 10th Street would be affected, but knowledgeable people have expressed great concern. Nothing in the EIR bodes well for this quality of the park.
Of note in the Recirculated - Draft Environmental Impact Report is this text, as an example of concern with the proposed project, and that’s only for the Visitor Center:
Overall, the new visitor/welcome center would alter historic landscape features of the West Lawn of the Capitol and reduce the ability of the resource to communicate its period of significance. The proposed project would introduce a large, modern intrusion into the historic landscape, which would eradicate almost one-third of the West Lawn’s character-defining features, such as historic circulation, portions of its vegetation, the spatial organization, and the topography. Therefore, this change would contribute to a significant impact on the historical resource.
Furthermore, the Historical State Capitol Commission, which by statute is to have access to all State agency documents when requested, has been denied access to documents. Commissioners have resigned, in protest.
Analysis of the construction of the underground parking structure, which gains 50 spaces over the current 150 spaces below the Annex, suggests little impact on the landscape. The claim is that the lack of information is due to the preliminary nature of the structure at this point, there does not appear to be a requirement for further study of effect of construction and the changes to the landscape.
For questions or further information, contact former commissioners Dick Cowan at email@example.com or Paula Peper at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Take action by contacting or writing to your state legislators, as well as Bill Monning, Chair of the Joint Rules Committee at https://sd17.senate.ca.gov/contact-us. If you need to locate your representatives, search http://findyourrep.legislature.ca.gov/
By Nancy Carol Carter (March 17, 2020)
Belle Sumner Angier moved with her family from Illinois to a farm on the San Diego north coast in 1884. Her interest in botany was stimulated by visits to the endemic forest of Torrey pine trees near La Jolla. Encouraged by a distant family relative, Charles Sprague Sargent of Harvard’s Arnold Arboretum, Angier conducted the first inventory of the rare trees. She joined advocacy efforts resulting in ordinances extending protection to the endangered groves and wrote about San Diego’s Torrey pines in the Overland Monthly (June 1900).
Angier operated a downtown secretarial bureau and the Angier Agency, one of San Diego’s early advertising businesses. While still living and working in San Diego, she took charge in 1903 of “The House Beautiful—its Flower Garden and Grounds,” a new feature in the Los Angeles Times. San Diego gardens were included in her coverage. In 1904 she placed two articles in Floral Life (February and March 1904).
By 1905 Belle Sumner Angier was residing in Los Angeles and finishing The Garden Book of California (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Co., 1906). The work was well received and its expressive writing on gardens and the making of a California home is still quoted. Angier took a staff position with West Coast Magazine in 1907 and, at age 36, married artist and photographer Walter Lewis Burn. She wrote for House Beautiful and placed another article in the Overland Monthly (October 1916).
Advertising as Mrs. Walter Lewis Burn, she offered service as a “consulting landscape gardener.” Little is known of her landscape work beyond the elaborate gardens created in 1907 for the Hotel Virginia in Long Beach. (Mullio and Vollard, Long Beach Architecture. Santa Monica: Hennessey + Ingalls, 2004.)
Angier reportedly worked on projects in the Central Valley as the railway expanded, but documentation has not been located. There also are mentions of a multivolume collaboration on California gardens by Angier and Burn, but the work is unrecorded in library records and may not have been published. Possibly, that collaboration was the more modest endeavor for which Burn is the photographer of record: a presentation album created around 1910 for the Los Angeles architects Sumner Hunt and A. W. Eager.
Note: The author is seeking a photograph of Belle Sumner Angier (Mrs. Walter Lewis Burn) and information on other landscape projects attributed to her, with the aim of more completely documenting the work of this relatively unknown early woman garden journalist and landscaper. Information to: email@example.com.
By Alexis Davis Millar (January 26, 2020)
For over 150 years, Balboa Park has shone as an ever-changing gem of San Diego. The 1,400 acres was originally set aside for public recreation in 1845, a portion of which would become Balboa Park. Officially designated a public park in 1868, its master plan evolved in the early 1900s by landscape architect Samuel Parsons, Jr. With the 1911 pivotal decision to celebrate the 1915 Panama-California Exposition in Balboa Park, competing renovation plans for the park would forever set the tone for all that would follow.
Water feature in Alcazar Garden (Credit: Alexis Davis Millar, 2019)
John Charles Olmsted and local horticulturalist Kate Sessions’ regionally sensitive planting design and site planning design, which prioritized capturing views, local land, and views of the bay, would be rejected in favor of architect Bertram Goodhue’s central mesa siting of the primary exposition space. Fulfilling this siting premise, Frank P. Allen, Jr. and Paul G. Thiene then created a planting design with turf and spectacular exotics. Allen and Thiene’s dazzling design choices, hailed as a huge success and captivating many visitors to San Diego, informed our definition of garden beauty in California – lush year-round, high-maintenance flower beds, and high water-dependence. Political might and funding pushed forward the central mesa siting and lush design, with Olmsted resigning from the project over these differences in long-term vision for the park. Along with Olmsted’s resignation, the design also lost the local expertise of Kate Sessions, as her role as consultant to Olmsted dissolved.
Twenty years later in preparation for the 1935 California Pacific International Exposition, architect Richard S. Requa expanded the building design and vernacular landscape style to include Moorish influences and styles relevant to the contextual architectural history of the Southwest. Throughout the design, he judiciously used water features as accents. Still preserved today was a key feature of his landscape design, that of transforming the formal garden to become the Alcazar Garden. The Alcazar Garden, with its Moorish tiled water features, was reconstructed in 1935, true to Requa’s design.
The guiding principle in Requa’s planting design for Balboa Park was one of green textures with colorful islands, leaving much of the park largely undeveloped. Though Requa ultimately considered his design unsuccessful, he was proud of a space he created for a specifically California native plant garden in the park.
The decades that followed the Exposition brought additional buildings, garden additions, and uses. Of the original 1,400-acre park created in 1868, 200 acres have now been lost. During the WWII era, for example, as a continuing resource for the local community, the park buildings also served as adjunct U.S. Navy buildings for the Balboa Navy hospital. Renovations during the 1990s included the Japanese Friendship Garden near the Spreckels Organ Pavilion.
As Balboa Park’s design continued to evolve into the late 1980s, local landscape architecture firm Estrada Land Planning produced a Park Master Plan and continues to re-envision how the park’s visitors can best experience the museums and outdoor spaces. Guiding the master plan by Estrada Land Planning and Civitas landscape architecture is that the core design is returned to the main plaza in an essentially vehicle-free zone while providing universal access to the museum buildings and landscape spaces. The community context and voices have been vigorously considered in the process.
Credit: Estrada Land Planning and Civitas, Plan for Plaza de Panama, May 2012
The Plaza de Panama Project concept, shown above has generated much passionate conversation. To stroll the Plaza unencumbered by the ever-dominating vehicular traffic was perceived as the next chapter in the evolution of this Park.
As illustrated in this very recent San Diego Union-Tribune article, the dynamic discussion continues to this moment, as to what is most appropriate in the next evolution of this community treasure.
Perhaps even the planting design of historic contributors such as Samuel Parsons, Jr., Kate Sessions, and John Charles Olmsted will also be reconsidered in this water-conscious time.
A special thank you to Nancy Carol Carter and Vicki Estrada for providing me such valuable Balboa Park materials in preparing this post.
David Laws (August 18, 2019)
Tom Brown's talk “Gardens of the California Missions” presented at the 2000 CGLHS Conference in Monterey and published in Pacific Horticulture Magazine (Spring 1988) is available online here. It is also reprinted in the Summer 2019 issue of Eden. Following is an abbreviated version of a reading list prepared by Susan Chamberlin for those seeking further information on the history of the missions and associated horticulture. The complete text will be included as a handout at the conference.
La Purísima Concepción: The Enduring History of a California Mission by Michael R. Hardwick (The History Press, 2015)
Superb, concise history of the mission, the Chumash Indians of the region where it was established, the mission system, and its economics, priests, and soldiers. There are brief treatments of the “Mission Garden” created by the CCC and their reconstruction of the buildings.
Changes in Landscape: The Beginnings of Horticulture in the California Missions second edition by Michael R. Hardwick (The Paragon Agency, 2005)
An invaluable horticultural resource. Introductory chapters cover the introduction of European-style agriculture to the California landscape followed by a chapter devoted to each of the Spanish colonial missions.
Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson (Roberts Brothers, 1884)
Jackson was outraged at the condition of California’s Indians under the Americans and wrote this novel as a sort of west coast Uncle Tom’s Cabin to stimulate sympathy for their plight after the end of the mission period. (The Spanish colonizers wanted to Christianize the Indians, not exterminate them, which was more or less the American approach.) Sure, it’s romanticized, but it’s the essential text for understanding the period that followed its publication in 1884.
California Mission Landscapes: Race, Memory, and the Politics of Heritage by Elizabeth Kryder-Reid (University of Minnesota Press, 2016)
It has long been posited that the mission gardens we see today are phony-baloney, Colonial Revival-style artifacts. The author deconstructs mission landscapes and links the patio garden at Mission Santa Barbara, created in 1872 by Father José María Romo, to the romanticized mission gardens that were created in the years that followed and became “touchstones” for interpreting California history and politics.
New Deal Adobe: The Civilian Conservation Corps and the Reconstruction of Mission La Purisima 1934-1942 by Christine E. Savage (Fithian Press, 1991)
There is no better history of the CCC project at La Purisima. Based on interviews with people who worked on the reconstruction and historic documents, it is filled with interesting photos and ephemera.
Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources by M. Kat Anderson (UC Press, 2005)
This is a corrective to the notion that California was a wilderness before the arrival of the Europeans and that native American Indians lived simply hunting deer and gathering acorns. Great bibliography.
See the complete conference bibliography at: BIBLIOGRAPHY CGLHS 2019 Conf .pdf
David Laws (May 5, 2019)
Western Hills Garden will celebrate its 60th anniversary with events scheduled on the weekend of May 25 & 26, 2019. The Winter 2015 issue of Pacific Horticulture magazine published an article of mine on "The rise, fall, and renaissance of one of horticulture's brightest stars" to mark the reopening of the iconic garden. The website included the following brief biographical information on the founders that was not shown in the print version.
Dining in the garden, 1978. Left to right: Lester Hawkins, Marshall Olbrich, Bill Day, and Jim Hickey. Photo: Jim Flack
Lester Hawkins (1915-1985) and Marshall Olbrich (1920-1991), founders of Western Hills Rare Plant Nursery in Occidental, California, came from distinctly different worlds and backgrounds.
Born in New York State in 1915, Lester Hawkins was raised in Olympia, Washington where his father ran a small grocery store. He went to live with an aunt in Texas who was married to an oil millionaire. The plan was for Lester to attend the Colorado School of Mines to study geology and enter the oil industry but instead he moved to New York where he lived on 40 cents a day. Charismatic, opinionated, and with strong views on the ills of the capitalist system, Lester studied economics in the public library and made plans to write a book on the topic. Three years later, he moved again, eventually arriving in San Francisco where he worked as a journalist and edited book manuscripts.
Robert Marshall Olbrich and a twin brother were born into the family of prominent Madison, Wisconsin attorney and civic leader Michael B. Olbrich in 1920. In politics a Progressive Republican, Olbrich senior served as deputy attorney general for Wisconsin, a special counsel for the state, and a regent of the University of Wisconsin from 1925 to 1929. He initiated a movement to acquire land for a garden site near Lake Monona that today is the nationally recognized Olbrich Botanical Gardens. Despondent over health and financial problems, in 1929 the senior Olbrich hanged himself. The family remained in Madison where Marshall earned an M.A. in Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin. He moved to Berkeley in 1942 to continue graduate work in philosophy at the University of California.
Lester and Marshall met while associating with colleagues in Berkeley having similar socialist leanings and opposition to the politics of the McCarthy era. They lived together in San Francisco in a relationship that, while enduring, was described by friends as like “two monkeys fighting in a barrel.” To escape the urban political scene and prejudice against their gay lifestyle, in 1959 they left their San Francisco apartment and professional careers to homestead on three acres of pastureland in Occidental, California, that Marshall purchased with a $2,300 inheritance.
While neither partner had any formal horticultural training, at Western Hills Lester emerged as a talented garden designer and Marshall as a master plantsman. Over the next 30 years, their unique combination of skills and personalities led to their development of the property into a garden and a place for sharing ideas that inspired a generation of horticulturists and landscape designers.
In addition to their work at the nursery, both men contributed research material and articles to many professional publications including many that appeared in the pages of Pacific Horticulture.
For information on the history of the garden, see "Western Hills at 60" on the Garden Conservancy website.
David Laws (February 25, 2019)
“Green Gables is one of the last remaining turn of the century, San Francisco summer estates. This 74-acre estate located in the most coveted portion of Woodside, California has 7 homes [29 beds, 25 full baths], 3 swimming pools, a reservoir, barn and stables and world-renowned gardens and lands. … This is literally a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to own what is arguably one of the finest estates in the country right in the heart of the Silicon Valley.”
This real estate listing, mind-boggling even by Silicon Valley standards, is for Green Gables the country home and garden that Charles Sumner Greene designed for the prominent San Francisco Fleishhacker family beginning in 1911. Greene worked on the house and gardens located on the eastern slope of the foothills in the town of Woodside for 25 years. Notable landscape features include a swimming pool (1916) and a formal water garden (1927) that has been described as "one of the finest Arts & Crafts-era gardens in the country."
The water garden is reached down a steep stone stairway leading to a 300-foot long reflecting pool against a backdrop of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The south end of the pool is defined by a row of arched stone columns in the style of a Roman aqueduct. Greene also designed other structures and dozens of flower pots and urns placed throughout the gardens. In 2015.
The Gamble House website published an article by CGLHS board member Ann Scheid, “An English house, an Italian garden, on the San Francisco Peninsula” that includes a detailed description of the house and garden. 
In 2004, the Fleishhacker family donated an easement to the Garden Conservancy to protect the historically significant garden and architectural landscape. Current CGLHS board member, Antonia Adezio, founding executive director/president of the Conservancy, headed up the San Francisco office at that time.
The current listing  does not quote a price, but an article in the San Jose newspaper The Mercury News of 2/25/19 says that it is “expected to fetch at least $140 million.” To describe the property with the old real estate cliché as offering a million-dollar view, would vastly understate the opportunity.
 “An English house, an Italian garden, on the San Francisco Peninsula” The Gamble House (June 3, 2015)
 “Unparalleled Silicon Valley Estate” Golden Gate Sotheby's International Realty
David Laws (October 19, 2018)
As with many tourist magnets across the globe, surging crowds are now threatening the very essence of the promise that draws them to the location in the first place. During a visit to Yosemite in early fall, I learned about how the park is addressing this problem that impacts some of its most beloved landscapes.
Communing with nature while jostled by herds of humanity seeking the most favored selfie spot is not what Fredrick Law Olmsted had in mind when, as a commissioner to Congress responsible for Yosemite, in 1865 he wrote; “It is a scientific fact that the occasional contemplation of natural scenes of an impressive character, … is favorable to the health and vigor of men and especially to the health and vigor of their intellect beyond any other conditions which can be offered them.”
For the first time in U.S. history, the federal government set aside scenic natural areas to be protected for the benefit of future generations. Roads were built and facilities provided to ease access to the most favored spots. With more than 4 million visitors a year, today Yosemite often resembles a forested theme park more than a sanctuary for the soul. In partnership with the Yosemite Conservancy, a philanthropic organization dedicated to supporting preservation and managing access in the park, in 2015 work began on the largest protection, restoration and improvement project in park history.
I visited the recently completed $40 million project to improve habitat and visitor experience in the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias. Roads, trails, and buildings encroaching on the roots of the ancient trees have been removed, an ADA-accessible boardwalk constructed, and natural hydrology improved. A shuttle service ferries visitors from a more distant parking area. And while the experience is still far from the pristine forest enjoyed by Olmsted, elimination of vehicles and new trails made of natural surfaces instead of pavement offer do offer 21st century visitors a glimpse of the grove’s original grandeur and serenity.
At Bridalveil Fall sign boards describe plans to upgrade the popular site with improved paths and facilities. I was intrigued by the promise to open unobstructed views of the fall “through the expansion of several vista opportunities and the restoration of historic vistas.”
I met with Yosemite National Park Public Affairs Officer, Scott Gediman, to learn more about this aspect of the restoration program. He described the Scenic Vista Management Plan (SVP) to reestablish and maintain the Park’s iconic views, vistas, and lines of sight that are obscured by vegetation growth. When the park was originally set aside, vegetation patterns were much more open, with unblocked views and open meadows. Early photographs and paintings portrayed open oak woodlands that allowed for easy viewing of granite walls and waterfalls from the valley floor. The mix of meadows and forests throughout the park was maintained by natural wildfires.
Based on criteria of vividness, uniqueness, access, and intactness, the plan established in 2011 identified 93 vista sites appropriate for management where conifer encroachment has obscured previously open vistas. A total of 21 sites had been worked on through 2017. At Scott’s recommendation, I stopped to look at work proceeding on the meadow near the base of El Capitan. Many of the conifers and dead trees had been removed to reveal a view made famous in a photograph by Carlton Watkins that was used on a postage stamp in 1934. With all such projects, the question is what historic era should be chosen for the restoration. In this case, as the current road was completed in 1928, the decision was made to leave all trees established before that date. Details of individual sites are posted on the NPS website from which the picture below is taken.
David Laws (September 14, 2018)
Hayes Perkins who single-handedly created Perkins Park, a waterfront garden in Pacific Grove, California that became internationally famous in the 1960s, worked his way around the world eight times as a manual laborer before settling in the city in 1938. On leaving home at age 15, he had hopped freight trains and worked in fields, mills, mines, plantations, and ranches across the country before setting off to explore the globe by crewing on sailing ships, mining for diamonds in the Congo, and logging the forests of New Guinea for more than 45 years.
Unusually for someone of his humble origins, he was an avid reader and kept a detailed diary of his travels. A friend, Frank Preston of Butler, Pennsylvania, arranged for them to be typed in 1961. Five carbon paper copies of over 2,000 pages each were hard-cover bound into three tomes under the title Here and There. One set is held by the Royal Geographical Society, London. Perkins gave his to the Pacific Grove Public Library in 1962
Perkins’s longest assignments were on William Randolph Hearst’s properties in California. He worked on the construction of both Hearst Castle and the family compound, Wyntoon, near Dunsmuir in the early 1930s. At both locations he came into frequent contact with Hearst, his employees, and the constant stream of visitors from the worlds of politics, business, and entertainment, particularly Hollywood.
His diary entries at this time become more autobiographical in style. They offer unique insights from the perspective of an hourly laborer into the people, politics, and setting of the extraordinary world being created on "La Cuesta Encantada" (The Enchanted Hill). Although he abhorred Hearst’s infatuation with fascist dictators, particularly Mussolini, Perkins describes him as a fair, even a benevolent, employer. However, Perkins spares no kind words for the legions of sycophants and corrupt managers who ruled the roost in Hearst’s absence. He even faults architect Miss [Julia] Morgan for favoring a loud-mouthed foreman over others who were more competent. His descriptions of the debauchery of visiting Hollywood figures and their ravishing of young women invited to party on the hill make Harvey Weinstein look like an amateur. A non-drinker, he was especially troubled by late-night beach landings to replenish the castle liquor cellars during Prohibition. The Coast Guard ignored his whistle blowing for fear of reprisal by Hearst.
I came across Mr. Perkins while trying to understand why the City of Pacific Grove had allowed it’s most unique and universally admired civic asset, Perkins Park, to fall into such disarray. On researching his life and work, I decided that it would make an interesting topic for Eden, Journal of the California Garden & Landscape History Society.
I discovered that Frank Preston’s copy of Here and There, together with hundreds of pages of correspondence, had been donated to the Special Collections and Archives at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. Among the many letters between Preston and Perkins, I came across one dated April, 1st 1963 from Preston that asked “I wish you to go to the library and get your diary and cut out the three pages of the “Forward” which I wrote and send it to me.” Noting the date, at first, I wondered if this request was intended as a joke. But apparently not. Preston had been advised by his attorney that much of the content in the book about people could be considered libelous and he might be subject to lawsuits because of his involvement with the publication. He even asked Perkins to remove the name of the book binder so he could not be tracked down that way. Filed together with the letter were the three pages that Perkins had removed from the library and returned as requested.
On my return, I met with Pacific Grove Library director Scott Bauer. We looked at the library copy of Here and There (it is bound into three fat tomes and is kept locked in the reference section) and sure enough the location where the pages had been removed showed ragged edges of torn paper. Scott was pleased to see copies of the three pages that had been missing for 55 years returned to their original home.
Reprinted from the Cedar Street Times, September 14, 2018 page 8
David Laws (August 5, 2018)
It’s not California and I hesitate to call it historic, it’s younger than me, but if you are ever in Victoria, British Colombia and are seeking a more intimate and a little less over-the-top horticultural experience than Butchart Gardens, I recommend a couple of hours strolling the oak-shaded slopes of the Abkhazi Garden just a 15-minute bus ride from downtown.
After her release from a prisoner of war camp near Shanghai in 1945, Marjorie Pemberton-Carter purchased a rocky 1-acre hillside near Victoria and began clearing the land to build a home. A year later she married her childhood friend Nicholas, the exiled hereditary Prince of Abkhazia, Georgia. Over the next 40 years they worked together to transform the site into the garden that “became our child.” With help from the Garden Conservancy, The Land Conservancy of British Colombia purchased the property in 2000.
The following description is taken from the TLC website. “Hidden from the street by a high hornbeam hedge, the garden embraces a natural landscape that is unique to Victoria. The site is blessed with dramatic glaciated rocky slopes, magnificent native Garry oaks and gorgeous vistas and the garden is designed to make the most of these remarkable features It is the Abkhazis’ response to their landscape that qualifies it as a stunning example of West Coast design. The garden flows around the rock, taking advantage of deeper pockets of soil for conifers, Japanese maples and rhododendrons which over the last 50 years have grown to an impressive maturity. Carpets of naturalized bulbs, choice alpines and woodland companions provide interest throughout the year to the discerning plantsman, but it is the overall design that leaves the greatest impression.”
Times vary with the seasons but the garden is open year-round. For more information see the Abkhazi Garden Guide.
Upper Photo: Summer - View of the restored summerhouse, courtesy David Laws
Lower photo: Spring - Azalea garden in bloom, courtesy Linda Abbey
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